Archive for the 'Range' Category

Steady Invasion of Florida’s Public Waters by Pomacea maculata

2014 Graph_edited-1

Each year aquatic biologists from Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission survey all of Florida’s public water bodies – – lakes and rivers with both state sovereignty and public boat ramps. This effort by the Invasive Plant Management Section focuses on aquatic vegetation, especially invasive, exotic plants, such as hydrilla and water hyacinth. In 2006, however, Pomacea maculata was added. Rob Kipker, my former supervisor there, is kind enough each year to provide me with the current data. His chart above shows a steady increase in the number of water bodies invaded by the South American snail. As of 2014, 36% of Florida’s public 450 waters are affected. Even more alarming is that Pomacea maculata can be found in 72% of Florida’s lakes and rivers by area! Jess Van Dyke

http://myfwc.com/wildlifehabitats/invasive-plants/

 

Advertisements

New USGS Maps Depict Ranges of Exotic Pomacea in the Continential U.S.

Pomacea insularum map 03.19.2013 USGS

USGS Fact Sheet for Pomacea maculata (insularum)

http://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/factsheet.aspx?SpeciesID=2599

_____________________________________________________

P. canaliculata map 2.15.2013 USGS

USGS Fact Sheet for Pomacea canaliculata

http://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/FactSheet.aspx?speciesID=980

USDA Profile for Pomacea canaliculata

http://www.invasivespeciesinfo.gov/aquatics/applesnail.shtml

____________________________________________________

How is the Island Apple Snail spreading so rapidly in Florida?

According to FWC’s data presented at the end of my last post, the Island Apple Snail (Pomacea insularum) was found in less than 1% of Florida’s public waterbodies in 2006. Five years later, its range has exploded to 22% the state’s lakes and rivers. How is that possible for an animal that moves an average of only 14 meters/week (Darby et al., 2002)? None other than Charles Darwin (1859) was also “perplexed much” when contemplating wide distribution of certain freshwater snail species among the distant Pacific Islands.

There are two modes of range expansion for organisms: active and passive. The active mode for mollusks is at a proverbial “snail’s pace.” Nevertheless, snails are common globally, including desert oases and newly formed volcanic islands. Clearly, mollusks possess an extraordinary capacity for passive means of dispersal. In the case of P. insularum, I have witnessed them using temporary buoyancy to move easily with the waves across lakes or with the current of creeks to rapidly float downstream. Such passive mobility can easily explain dispersal within a given watershed. However, I have also seen this primarily-aquatic species quickly and inexplicably appear in newly-constructed, isolated ponds. Passive dispersal by human activities is well-documented and, therefore, usually blamed, but I wonder. Range expansion in such far flung areas just seems too commonplace. There cannot be that many hobbyists recklessly dumping aquaria!

Charles Darwin (1859) conducted an experiment on a theory proposed by Lyell (1832) that external transport by birds is the most likely passive dispersal mechanism of freshwater snails: “I suspended the feet of a duck in an aquarium; where many ova of freshwater shells were hatching; and I found that numbers of the extremely minute and just-hatched shells crawled on their feet, and clung to them so firmly that when taken out of the water, they could not be jarred off, though at a somewhat more advanced age they would voluntarily drop off. These just-hatched mollusks, though aquatic in nature, survived on the duck’s feet, in damp air, from twelve to twenty hours; and in this length of time a duck or heron might fly at least six or seven hundred miles, and if blown across the sea to an oceanic island, or to any distant point, would sure to alight on a pool or rivulet.”

Many researchers after Darwin have been equally “perplexed” by the rapid and/or long distance dispersal of slow-moving mollusks, but a scientific consensus is developing. Vagvolgyi (1975) concluded that small body size facilitated the dispersal of land snails across broad expanses of ocean: “Support to the hypothesis is provided by the facts that land snails have been recovered from the plumage of birds [and] that recently formed volcanic islands have been colonized predominantly by minute land snails.”

In a study of 50 springs widely scattered across the arid regions of Australia, Wilmer et al. (2008) determined that “short range dispersal of aquatic snails occurs via active movement facilitated by aquatic connections among springs while long-range dispersal is likely facilitated by an animal vector (phoresy).” Aubry et al (2006) stated that passive dispersal of an invasive snail in France relied on “a behavior, called the ‘climbing reflex’ – – one of the main and most efficient features in the process of passive dispersal.”

Clearly, the theory that birds transport aquatic snails is not new.  In fact, it is no longer a theory but has been demonstrated convincingly, both experimentally and by field observations. “The pulmonate land snail Balea [has]even managed to travel over thousands of kilometers of open ocean, from Europe to the Azores and the Tristan da Cunha islands, and back again” (Gittenberger et al., 2006). In the case of the Island Apple Snail, I wonder if the “climbing reflex” is innate behavior for newly-hatched juveniles. It would certainly be easy for such small snails to attach to the legs of wading birds frozen in their common fishing stance.

To test that theory, I went back to my favorite experimental site, Wellman Pond, and placed 30 bamboo stakes with diameters similar to those of the legs of wading birds near hatching egg clusters of P. insularum. Upon return, I carefully inspected each stake and found only one juvenile snail. Quoting Gittenberger (2012) again, “Long-distance dispersal implies a series of unlikely events. However, time is available and a single snail may be sufficient for a successful range extension.” In Florida, the distance from lake to lake is relatively short. It seems reasonable to conclude that the rapid range expansion of the Island Apple Snail is via passive dispersal on the legs wading birds. Posted by Jess Van Dyke

Ebro Delta: The Exotic Apple Snail’s Bridgehead in Europe

The Ebro Delta (350 km2), located in Tarragona at the southern end of Costa Dorada, is the largest wetland in Catalonia and is the second most important natural wetland habitat in Spain. About 8,000 ha of the delta are natural park sites, part of the Natura 2000 network of the European Union. The delta has high biodiversity and productivity, excellent fish and wildlife habitat, and important water purification and storage functions. Plant diversity is extremely rich with 515 species catalogued. Large pools surrounded by giant reed beds occupy the coastal portions. No wonder the Ebro Delta is the second most important bird habitat in Spain. Economic activities include agriculture, fisheries, aquaculture and tourism. Rice cultivation, however, is the dominant use.

On August 1, 2009, the Island Apple Snail (Pomacea insularum) was first documented on the European Continent. Its conspicuous, bright-pink egg clusters were detected on shoreline vegetation along a small irrigation canal, adjacent to a fish farm in the Ebro Delta. The range expansion of the exotic snails was explosive. Within a month, they had colonized half of the interconnected canals in the northern half of the delta (up to 5.1 egg masses m-1) as well as the main river channel (up to 6.2 egg masses m-1). After reviewing the literature, local experts recognized the great potential of widespread economic and  environmental damage.

Government agencies quickly implemented plans to eliminate the pest manually, mechanically and chemically hoping to avoid harmful effects on agriculture and native biodiversity. All emersed vegetation from 16 miles (26 km) of shoreline in the initial area of infestation was harvested and incinerated to no avail. The desiccation of 9,500 hectares of the delta for five months at a cost of 3.5 million € in attempt to eradicate the snails proved fruitless. In spite of these and other extreme measures, “the ability of the Island Apple Snail to thrive and disperse in the Ebro Delta shows that this bridgehead is firmly established,” writes Miguel Angel López of the Catalonian Government Environmental Department.

I have been in communication with a biologist who is currently assisting the frustrating struggle to stem the Island Apple Snail’s invasion of Europe: “The Environmental Department has been hand-collecting adults, putting barrier traps in the irrigation canals, destroying egg clutches, and burning shoreline vegetation in non-sensitive areas to remove egg substrate. They are now using saponins as well. The snail is occupying an area of the delta where there are mostly canals for habitat. The Environmental Department has mapped about 240 km (150 miles) of canals which are infested. We regularly have sustained temperatures of 9 or 10º C during winter here with occasional drops below zero and there has been snow here during two of the last five years, and they seem to be doing just great! Copper is not permitted as there are native bivalve species sharing the irrigation canal habitat. Baits are problematic as the current in the canals rapidly disperses them. Despite the Environmental Department’s efforts with a crew of 30 people, there seems to be no end in sight. The bottom line is more funding is needed to get ahead of this pest. Any suggestions from your experiences would be appreciated.”

O.K., I’ll give it my best shot: Clearly, the situation is dire; the wetlands of an entire continent are at stake. In my opinion, the ultimate solution is biological control via some selective pathogen, though such an organism will not be easy to find (or create). At present, containment is paramount. Accidental transport of the exotic snails to other aquatic sites must be prevented. In my experience, anglers with boats on trailers are most often responsible for the inadvertent dispersal of invasive, aquatic species. In the case of Pomacea, however, aquarium hobbyists have played a major role.

Within the Ebro Delta, I suggest that you focus on Pomacea’s two key vulnerabilities: the conspicuousness of its eggs and its vulnerability to chemical attractants. Continue to collect eggs, as much as manpower will allow, and possibly make some money to subsidize your control efforts. Biotechnology companies in Taiwan are spending huge sums to develop technologies to extract the anti-oxidant Astaxanthin from Pomacea eggs. These companies estimate that the value of the anti-aging, skin care products based on that active ingredient could reach over $400,000,000 annually. Natural Astaxanthin is currently priced at $7000/kg (not a typo). Maybe, a Spanish biotech firm would like to participate and fund the collection of Pomacea eggs in the Ebro Delta!

Regarding baiting, do not underestimate the chemoreception capabilities of the Island Apple Snail. Even with some flow, Pomacea can be drawn to the right attractant. For collection (or poisoning), bait stations make sense. I have shipped Miguel one of our traps with non-toxic bait to test. By doing so, I am not
suggesting that trapping and collecting snails along 240 km of canals is practical. However, with an attractant bait that is also toxic, progress could be made in reducing the population of adult snails. I am in touch with a company that produces an innovative, plant-derived molluscicide, and am eager to incorporate it into the bait we produce for laboratory testing. I will let you know how that goes. Good luck with your battle, Miguel! Posted by Jess Van Dyke

For more information, contact:

Miguel Angel López

Catalonian Government Environmental Department

Miguel.Lopez@gencat.cat

False Hope of the Boom-and-Bust Model

It has been a long time since my last post. The problem has not been “writer’s block” but the lack of an interesting topic. It has been very quiet in the southern U.S. regarding exotic Pomacea. Though the USFWS in Alabama continues to struggle against Pomacea insularum at two locations, officials in the rest of the South seem complacent regarding exotic Pomacea. In Florida, the official dogma is that “they tend to boom-and-bust without causing much harm. Besides, they have already spread everywhere.” I am less sanguine.

Regarding the boom-and-bust rationale for official inaction, Dr. Daniel Simberloff and Leah Gibbons (2004) said it best: “Substantial populations of invasive non-indigenous species occasionally collapse dramatically. Although disease is often invoked, the causes are rarely studied experimentally and/or quantitatively, and some collapses remain quite mysterious. Except for the few species in which spontaneous collapse has been repeatedly observed, the possibility of such an event is unwarranted as a potential rationale for a do-nothing approach to management.”

In an exhaustive study of the impact of alien species in the Mediterranean Sea, Dr. Charles Boudouresque et al. (2005) concluded, “The boom-and-bust model predicts the eventual decline of the invasive species and the recovery of the native ecosystem. In fact, species introductions are irreversible, even at a geological scale, and the natural decline of introduced species is quite uncommon. Data have been misinterpreted, leading to the generalization of the probably rare boom-and-bust model.” The graph below depicts the typical population volatility of an introduced species which is not to be confused with a permanent “bust.”

Often, the interaction between a species’ population size and its habitat is subtle. Populations fluctuate due to density-dependent factors, such as disease,
parasitism, predation, and competition, and due to density independent factors, like the weather. As I was driving my tractor through the smoky haze blanketing my farm while disking fire lanes, I pondered, “What is the primary factor causing the perceived bust in the exotic snail populations? What if it is not subtle in this case but so obvious that it is hidden in plain sight?” Then, it hit me – – the exceptional drought plaguing the Southern U.S. has temporarily stemmed the proliferation of exotic Pomacea and spawned official complacency. It makes sense because current “exceptional drought” map of the U.S. generously overlaps the range of P. insularum.

While flooding is documented to assist the range expansion of exotic Pomacea, if not the eggs, one can logically conclude that extreme drought should be detrimental. To test my hypothesis, I took a walk around Wellman Pond, the test site for our apple snail traps and my favorite place to observe Pomacea insularum. I had not visited the site for months, and while I expected some impact of the recent drought, I was amazed to see the lowest water level ever. As I walked on the dry lake bottom within the periphery of emersed vegetation, I saw numerous dead snails, stranded egg clusters, and an army of foraging fire ants (See “Rematch: Pomacea versus the Red Fire Ant”). Clearly, the exotic Pomacea have had a difficult spring season in 2011 at Wellman Pond . . . and likely elsewhere in the South.

The image above is typical of the entire shoreline of Wellman Pond. Fire Ants are devouring most of the snail eggs, while the adult snails have lost access to the refuge from predation and egg laying substrate provided by the emersed vegetation. These hard times for exotic apple snails will surely end on Wellman Pond and elsewhere in the southern United States. The current rainfall deficit will inevitably swing the other way. In some future wet period, the expansion of the exotic Pomacea will likely resume with a vengeance. The snails are more vulnerable to control efforts now than ever. This is no time for official complacency based on the false hope of the boom-and-bust model. Posted by Jess Van Dyke

Shell Shocked – – Florida’s Response to the Invasion of Exotic Apple Snails

As the renowned ecologist E. O. Wilson put it, “Florida rivals Hawaii in the magnitude of the threat from exotic species and for the same reasons: geographic insularity, widespread habitat disturbance, and bombardment from all sides by nonnative plants and animals.” Florida is the national gateway for foreign plants and animals for the ornamental plant, pet, and aquarium industries. In the face of this onslaught, Florida’s natural areas are losing their identity and function. I spent 35 years in DEP’s exemplary Bureau of Invasive Plants fighting over 1000 foreign plants established in Florida, now constituting 27% of our flora. My focus was on protecting the native aquatic plant communities that are so crucial to Florida’s lakes and wetlands.

As I was about to retire, the Island Apple Snail (Pomacea insularum) began to spread rapidly in Florida, efficiently devouring the very aquatic habitats I dedicated my career to protect. Consequently, I started this website to sound the alarm about exotic apple snails and assist resource managers fighting these invasive and destructive animals. Fortunately, there are many state and federal biologists who share my concern about exotic apple snails. The State of Mississippi has prohibited all members of Family Ampullariidae, calling them “destructive plant-eating apple snails.” Texas, Hawaii, California and Louisiana have identified them as agricultural pests that can negatively impact rice, taro and the production of other aquatic plants. At this time, Alabama is committed to prevent the range expansion of Pomacea insularum (see “Alabama Fights to Protect the Mobile-Tensaw River Delta). In Georgia, the Island Apple Snail has been given its highest priority for time and funding expended on control. What about Florida?

There are five stages of the response to the invasion of an exotic organism: 1. DENIAL – – “We know X is here, but it’s not a serious problem, so we don’t need to worry about it. Perhaps it won’t make it. Besides we have to deal with W, which is of more immediate concern.”2. ALARM – – “Oh, my gosh! Species X is multiplying fast and taking over the community. We must stop it.” 3. BARGAINING – – “Let’s put together rapid response teams. Perhaps, we can limit its expansion to a few areas and keep it out of critical habitat. We’ll have to divert some resources from dealing with species W, but if we have the opportunity to get on top of this we should.” 4. DEPRESSION: “We simply don’t have the resources to deal with X. Why didn’t somebody do something when it was manageable? We need better laws to keep these things out in the first place, but the commercial interests are just too strong.” 5. ACCEPTANCE: “I can’t worry about X right now, I just have discovered Y and we must deal with it now while we can!”

In September of 2005, the official position of the Florida Fish & Wildlife Conservation Commission (FWC) was: “Channeled Apple Snails [meaning P. insularum and canaliculata at that time because of taxonomic confusion] are non-indigenous to Florida and have been present in the state for over 20 years. They are a potential threat to our aquatic ecosystems, although no serious impacts have yet to be documented. Their greatest impact appears to be how they interact and possibly disrupt populations of native Florida Apple Snails, and FWC will be conducting research in this area” (see DENIAL Stage above). Subsequently, annual surveys conducted by FWC biologists of Florida’s 460 public water bodies noted a dramatic increase in the range of exotic apple snails. In 2006, four water bodies (4779 acres) were infested. In 2009, exotic apple snails were found in 75 water bodies comprising over 750,000 acres (60% of Florida’s freshwater areas). FWC will continue to take no action to prevent the spread of P. insularum “since it is widespread beyond reasonable control, and because the preliminary indications are that its impacts will be less than originally anticipated and, in some circumstances, there are beneficial effects” (see ACCEPTANCE stage above). For P. insularum, it was a very short hop from denial to acceptance.

Regarding the smaller, more isolated population of the Channeled Apple Snail (P. canaliculata) southeast of Jacksonville, it was a different story. FWC worked diligently toward eradication. Since May of 2008, the only known site of P. canaliculata, a 4-acre retention pond, has received constant attention. A crew of 5 or 6 people initially handpicked thousands of snails, then snails and eggs were collected there on a weekly basis. Recently, divers could find no snails. It is too early to be certain, but eradication may have actually been achieved . . . at least at that site. Other sites of P. canaliculata are rumored to exist in Duval County.

While FWC’s comparative lack of response to P. insularum might make sense given that it is so wide spread, the lack of concern regarding its ultimate environmental impact does not. There is simply too much taxonomic confusion to be sanguine: “Pomacea insularum and P. canaliculata pose the greatest threat to agriculture native aquatic wetland ecosystems in the U.S. [of all the apple snails]. The potential of P. canaliculata has been clearly demonstrated in Southeast Asia where its introduction . . . into Thailand resulted in dramatic changes in biodiversity and ecosystem functioning and by its devastating effects on agriculture. Some of the . . . impacts associated with P. canaliculata are almost certainly attributable to P. insularum. This species is also widespread in the region but has not been explicitly acknowledged as a serious pest because of confusion in the identification of these two species, with most of the literature referring to P. canaliculata. Pomacea insularum may therefore be likely to have a significant impact on aquatic ecosystems and pose a threat to crops in the southeastern U. S.” (Rawlings, T. A. et al., 2007).

Amazingly, it is still legal to buy, sell, and possess exotic apple snails in Florida, although last winter FWC politely asked Florida aquaculturists to stop selling P. insularum and P. canaliculata. “We work with DACS’s Division of Aquaculture to persuade culturists to stick to [selling only] the Spiketop Apple Snail (P. bridgesii), the only non-native apple snail that USDA will allow for interstate transport and one that has been in Florida for a while without apparent impacts” (Jenny Tinnell, FWC). Why allow the sale of P. canaliculata in Florida, after a heroic effort to eradicate them?

I know that some of you might be scratching your heads at this point. However, consider the plight of FWC’s Exotic Species Coordination Section with only 8 employees and an annual budget of less than $500,000. It has its hands full in this nation’s primary gateway for exotic animals dealing with Burmese Pythons, Nile Monitors, Green Iguanas, Vervet Monkeys, and 500 or so other exotic fish and wildlife species that have made their way to Florida. Against that line-up, exotic apple snails might seem rather mundane! Also keep in mind that the aquarium and pet industries are powerful economic and political interests in Florida who have successfully demanded minimal regulation. In response, “FWC has chosen to encourage responsible pet ownership rather than adopt a prohibitionist approach, which we believe would be ineffective [given] the substantial level of pet ownership [in Florida]and the industry that services this demand” (Scott Hardin, Section Leader).

Because P. insularum is clearly well-established in Florida, I hope FWC is correct in its assumption that these snails are innocuous, or even beneficial, to the aquatic environment. However, I seriously doubt it having personally witnessed P. insularum stripping the vegetation from Lake Munson, plus nearly doing so at Wellman Pond in spite of arduous snail control efforts. I admit to being very alarmed (see ALARM stage above). The next natural area that is in jeopardy near Tallahassee, in my opinion, is beautiful Lake Jackson, officially designated an Outstanding Florida Water and one of only four freshwater Aquatic Preserves in the the entire state. I wonder how this lake’s incredible, aquatic plant diversity will fare versus the on-going explosion of exotic snails. Maybe, if the Island Apple Snail strips Lake Jackson, FWC will finally take notice and put both the Island and Channeled Apple Snails on its list of “Conditional nonnative species,” those considered to be dangerous to the ecology and/or the health and welfare of the people of Florida. Until then, FWC appears “shell shocked” in the face of the rapid range expansion of exotic apple snails in Florida’s lakes, rivers and wetlands. Posted by Jess Van Dyke

For more information on FWC’s Exotic Species Coordination Section, contact:

Scott Hardin, Section Leader

850-410-0656 ext. 17257

scott.hardin@myfwc.com

FWC’s Non-Native Species:

http://myfwc.com/WILDLIFEHABITATS/Nonnative_index.htm

Update: On July 1, 2012, Scott Hardin, former Leader of the Exotic Species Coordination Section for the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, joined the Pet Industry Joint Advisory Council, a group that lobbies for the interests of the pet industry in Washington, D.C.

http://reptilechannel.com/reptile-news/2012/06/28/scott-hardin-joins-pijac-staff-as-consultant.aspx

Rematch: Pomacea versus the Red Fire Ant

fire-ants-on-eggs

While collecting thousands of Island Apple Snail (Pomacea insularum) egg clusters from Wellman Pond, we often speculated on what ferocious predator could have elicited such high reproductive capacity in this South American snail through evolutionary time. Initially, we fantasized about some large reptile, maybe a 20’ Snail Anaconda (Eunectes pomaceoraptor?), feeding so effectively on apple snails in the Argentine rivers and marshes that the remaining few adults had better reproduce prolifically for the species to merely survive. Then, as we began to notice the numerous ant bites received while wading through the shoreline plants, it came to us. Maybe, the ferocious predator wasn’t all that large. This notion was solidified when our 4-ton pile of disposed snails became one giant Fire Ant bed!

The Red Imported Fire Ant (Solenopsis invicta) and the exotic Apple Snails (Pomacea canaliculata & P. insularum) have two common traits: They are both highly invasive in the southern U.S. and their native ranges in South America generously overlap. Surely, they co-evolved in a predator-prey relationship with hydrology as a key component. Fire Ants are, indeed, ferocious predators of snails, having caused the extinction of a native tree snail in the Florida Keys (Forys et al, 2001). Stevens et al (1999) documented that Fire Ants attacked native apple snails (P. paludosa) in Florida that became “exposed during dry down conditions.” Yusa (2001) observed that “when egg masses [of P. canaliculata] were experimentallyplaced on levees [infested with Fire Ants], on average 50% of the eggs were lost within two days in March and 38% were lost within threedays in August.No eggs were lost when ants weresuccessfully excluded by water.” Way et al (2009)noted that “periodic drainage . . . enables [the tropical fire ant] to join the predator complex . . . valuable for ant-based control of pests such as snails” in rice paddies.

The current range of the exotic Red Fire Ant in the U.S. encompasses the projected range of the invasive South American Apple Snails. Certainly, predation by the Fire Ant will provide some friction to the rate of expansion of the exotic apple snails in the U.S., especially in areas with fluctuating water levels. Can we take further advantage of this ancient predator-prey relationship? Based on Yusa (2001), Way (2009), and personal observations, it appears a short period of water level manipulation in the presence of red fire ants can have a deleterious effect on apple snail reproduction. When the bases of shoreline plants are exposed in Wellman Pond, for example, numerous Red Fire Ants begin eagerly scouting for egg clusters. I am inclined to ask the Parks personnel not to treat the fire ant mounds there. Periodic, partial “drawdowns” also seem warranted. Let the rematch of invasive Pomacea and the Red Fire Ant continue! Posted by Jess Van Dyke

UF’s Excellent site on Red Fire Ants:

http://entnemdept.ufl.edu/creatures/urban/ants/red_imported_fire_ant.htm

National Geographic video on Fire Ants:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t0fB4vYK5AE


About Snail Busters

The Snail Busters Blog was created to facilitate communication between aquatic resource managers who are fighting the spread of invasive, South American apple snails, specifically Pomacea maculata (formerly P. insularum) and P. canaliculata, in the U.S.

Enter your email address to subscribe to this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email.

Join 35 other followers